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INTRODUCTORY  ESSAY.                              107
Flora predominates throughout the drier regions of the Hima-
laya*. Siberian forms are, however, by no means confined
to the drier, parts of the jchain, but may be observed even in
the most humid regions of the Himalaya, and occasionally
even on the mountains of tropical India. Thus Artemisia and
Astragalus, which are perhaps the most characteristic genera
of the Siberian type of vegetation, are not only abundant
throughout Tibet and the interior Himalaya, but are repre-
sented by a few species in the plains of the Panjab, on the
outer slopes of the western Himalaya, and even on the Khasia
mountains. Spir&a Kamtchatica, chamadrifolia, and sorbi-
folia, and Paris polyphylla, are. also Siberian forms which
extend into the rainy Himalaya; and Corydalis Sibirica and
Nympkaa puyiila are remarkable instances of specific identity
between Khasia and Siberian plants t-
5. The European type.—The extent to which European
plants abound in India has never hitherto been even approxi-
mately appreciated. Dr. Royle was the first to indicate this
affinity between the vegetation of the eastern and western
continents of the old world; and throughout his writings we
find constant evidence of his never having lost sight of this
being a marked feature. Had the collections, upon which he
founded his conclusions, been critically compared and worked
out, the keystone to the whole system of distribution in
Western Asia coUd not have escaped him, which does not
rest so much upon a number of. representative species, as
* As a few instances, besides the many Rawuncuta<!e& and Iktmariaceirs enu-
merated in the pages of the present volume, we may mention Tauscheria, de-
sertoruw, JBiebersteinia odora, Fokentilla Salessovii, mttltifida, and lifn<rcat
Cham&rJtodQS $abu<lo$a> Pyrus laccata^ Astragalus contortupJirat^ densi-
florwt, aiiii jHtbitltt&uSt /Vwtv* friffhlff, Oxytropis diffbsa, Cicer Soongariam,
iSWioft tivadrifldwn, Artemisia I>rm uuMtlus, sooparia^ Tournefortlana^ fases*
and talsafM&t, tfatutMtova IxHfolia and fflffmrea, Mutyedium Tatari-
Osmotfiamntftt Jlrapraiw (RkoiMe»drQ» anthop^on9 Bon), Salts awgw-
ttluf baha/m/era, Carex meroglochin^ eteu&ptynay $bi/sodes* supine,
and tristis*
f It i» t^uious to remark that there are in Siberia a certain number of forms
indicative of tropical Indian types, afy for instance, Mm&permm and Anandrict.